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About BHN
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Drugs and Alcohol Policy
Equal Opportunity Employer
Organisation Chart
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What We Do..
Trade in Bulk
Ship Management
Crew Management
Port Management
Ship/Crew Agency
Victualling and Catering
Marine Consultancy
Marine IT Solutions
Maritime Educational Trust

Contact Details

BHN Offshore Services Pvt. Ltd. 1002-A, BSEL Tech Park, Vashi, New Mumbai, 400703, Maharashtra, India

Tel: +91-22-40781700(10 Lines)
Fax: +91-22-40781766
E-mail : info@bhnoffshore.com


BHN Offshore Services Sdn. Bhd. Unit No. B-1-12-3A, Soho Suits @ KLCC, No. 20, Jalan Perak, 50450 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

E-mail : info@bhnoffshore.com

BHN Shipping Company LLC. Kuwait City, Kuwait,

E-mail :info@bhnoffshore.com

Web site : www.bhnoffshore.com

Welcome to BHN Offshore Services Pvt. Ltd.

Group Company of BHNgroup.in / BHNworld.com
Maritime Terms
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AA: Always Afloat
AAAA: Always accessible always Afloat
AAPMA: Association of Australian Port & Marine Authorities
AAOSA: (Always Afloat or Safe Aground): The condition for a vessel whilst in port.
ABB: Australian Barley Board
ABLE SEAMAN (AB): A member of the deck crew who is able to perform all the duties of an experienced seaman; certificated by examination; must have three years sea service. Also called Able Seaman.
ABS: American Bureau of Shipping: A U.S.-based private classification, or standards setting society for merchant ships and other marine systems.
ADCOM : Address Commission
ACCOMMODATION UNIT: Fitted with cabins and catering facilities for offshore crews. Semi submersible accommodation units are often called "Flotels".
ACT OF GOD: An accident due exclusively to natural causes which may not be provided against by human foresight.
ACTUAL CONTAINER GROSSES WEIGHT: Total weight of a container including empty container, loose internal fittings and payload.
ACTUAL PAY LOAD: The actual weight of the pay load - the difference between the actual gross weight and the gross tare weight.
ADDENDUM: Additional terms at the end of a charter party.
ADMEASUREMENT: The confirmed or official dimensions of a ship.
AD VALORUM: In proportion to value. AD VALORUM RATE: A rate applied in proportion to the value. Applied to duties graduated according to the subject matter taxed.
AFT: In, near, or toward the stern of the vessel.
AGENCY FEE: A fee charged to the ship by the ship's agent, representing payment for services while the ship was in port. Sometimes called attendance fee.
AGW: all going well
AHL: Australian Holds Ladders
AHT (Anchor-handling tug): Moves anchors and tow drilling vessels, lighters and similar.
AHTS (Anchor-handling Tug/Supply): Combined supply and anchor-handling ship. Seismic ship: Conducts seismic surveys to map geological structures beneath the sea bed.
ALL CONTAINERSHIP: A vessel designed to carry containers only.
ALL HATCH SHIP: A vessel in which decks and ‘tween decks consist of removable panels so the whole length of the holds is accessible from above.
ALLISION: The act if striking or collision of a moving vessel against a stationary object.
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE: The temperature of a substance surrounding a body.
AMIDSHIPS: Generally speaking the word amidships means in the middle portion of a vessel.
ARRIVAL NOTICE: A form of advice used to notify a consignee of cargo arrival
ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT: The document containing all particulars relating to the terms of agreement between the Master of the vessel and the crew. Sometimes called ship's articles, shipping articles.
APS: Arrival pilot station
ASAP: As soon as possible.
ASTERN: A backward direction in the line of a vessel's fore and aft line; behind. If a vessel moves backwards it is said to move astern; opposite to ahead.
ASSIGNMENT: The documentary transfer of title to cargo.
ATDNSHINC : Any Time Day/Night Sundays/Holidays included
ATUTC : Actual Time used to count
AT SEA: In marine insurance this phrase applies to a ship which is free from its moorings and ready to sail.
A/S : Along side
AUTOMATIC PILOT: An instrument designed to control automatically a vessel's steering gear so that she follows a pre-determined track through the water.
AWB: Air Way Bill. A document of affreightment used to cover the movement of goods by air.

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BACKFREIGHT: The owners of a ship are entitled to payment as freight for merchandise returned through the fault of either the consignees or the consignors. Such payment, which is over and above the normal freight, is called back freight.
BACKHAUL: A deviation to move cargo on the return leg of a voyage for the purpose of minimizing ballast mileage and thereby reducing transportation costs.
BACKLETTER: Where a seller/shipper issues a 'letter of indemnity' in favor of the carrier in exchange for a clean bill of lading. May have only a limited value. Example: P & I problems.
BAF, BUNKER ADJUSTMENT FACTOR: An adjustment factor representing variations in the price of bunker fuels, expressed as a plus/minus percentage which is applied to freight calculations. See also CABAF.
BAGGED CARGO: Various kinds of commodities usually packed in sacks or in bags, such as sugar, cement, milk powder, onion, grain, flour, etc.
BALE CAPACITY: Cubic capacity of vessels holds to carry packaged dry cargo such as bales/pallets.
BALLAST: Heavy substances loaded by a vessel to improve stability, trimming, sea-keeping and to increase the immersion at the propeller. Sea water ballast is commonly' loaded in most vessels in ballast tanks, positioned in compartments right at the bottom and in some cases on the sides, called wing tanks. On a tanker, ballast is seawater that is taken into the cargo tanks to submerge the vessel to a proper trim.
BALLAST BONUS: Compensation for relatively long ballast voyage.
BALLAST MOVEMENT: A voyage or voyage leg made without any paying cargo in a vessel's tanks. To maintain proper stability, trim, or draft, sea water is usually carried during such movements.
BALLAST TANK: Compartments at the bottom of a ship or on the sides which are filled with liquids for stability and to make the ship seaworthy. Any shipboard tank or compartment on a tanker normally used for carrying salt water ballast. When these compartments or tanks are not connected with the cargo system they are called segregated ballast tanks or systems.
BARE BOAT CHARTER: A charter in which the bare ship is chartered without crew; the charterer, for a stipulated sum taking over the vessel for a stated period of time, with a minimum of restrictions; the charterer appoints the master and the crew and pays all running expenses. See Demise Charter.
BARGE: Flat-bottomed boat designed to carry cargo on inland waterways, usually without engines or crew accommodations. Barges can be lashed together and either pushed or pulled by tugs, carrying cargo of 60,000 tons or more. Small barges for carrying cargo between ship and shore are known as lighters.
BARGE ABOARD CATAMARAN: A way of loading cargo into large barges and then in turn loading the barges into a ship.
BARGE CARRIERS: Ships designed to carry either barges or containers exclusively, or some variable number of barges and containers simultaneously. Currently this class includes two types of vessels, the LASH and the SEABEE.
BARGE FORWARDING: The of-loading of a container from a vessel to a barge for forwarding by river or canal.
BARGE SHIP: Ships which a designed to carry fully loaded barges. The barges are loaded to/from the ship in Harbour without the need for berthing facilities. Loaded barges are towed between ship and shore.
BARRATRY: Any wrongful act committed by the master or crew of a vessel.
BASIC SERVICE PORT: Port areas freighted as though overseas ships called there.
BEAUFORT SCALE: A scale of common observations to describe wind and sea conditions ranging from "0" for sea calm, to force "12" for hurricane force winds (devised by British Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort in 1806).
BAY PLAN: Plan of a vessel showing the distribution of cargo weights throughout the vessel and the amount of ballast and fuel at departure conditions.
BBB: Before breaking bulk. Refers to freight payments that must be received before discharge of a vessel commences.
B/d: Barrels per day (measure of petroleum production).
BEAM: The width of a ship. Also called breadth.
BENDS : both ends (loading /discharging ports)
BENEFICIAL OWNERSHIP: Designates the owner who receives the benefits or profits from the operation.
BERTH CARGO: When a liner cargo vessel accepts extra cargo to fill up the empty space remaining.
BERTH C/P: Term used in a voyage charter party, e.g. vessel shall proceed to Berth 2 at Falmouth.
BFL: Base flow total indicator.
B/L, BL, BOL, and Bill of Lading: A document signed by, or on behalf of, the Master of a ship containing an acknowledgment that the goods have been received, a description of the goods and their destination and the terms under which the goods are to be carried.
Bill of Lading tonne: Tonnage (weight or measurement) used to calculate freight.
BIN-TAINER: An open-top container (with or without a soft cover) with the insides constructed as a hard tray for rough bulk loads, for grab or tipper discharge.
BLACK CARGO: Cargo banned by general cargo workers for some reason. This ban could be because the cargo is dangerous or hazardous to health.
BLACK GANG: A slang expression referring to the personnel in the engine department aboard ship.
B/N :Booking note
BOATSWAIN (BOSUN): The highest unlicensed rating in the deck department who has immediate charge of all deck hands and who in turn comes under the direct orders of the master or chief mate or mate.
BOILERS: Steam generating units used aboard ship to provide steam for propulsion (and) for heating and other auxiliary purposes.
BOLSTER: 1.A container consisting of a rectangular base only.
2.Device placed on a railcar or trailer to hold a container. A set of bolsters are used where tie down fittings for containers are absent.
BONDED GOODS: Dutiable goods upon which duties have not been paid.
BONDED WAREHOUSE (BOND): A privately owned warehouse which is licensed by the Customs Authorities in which goods subject to the control of Customs may be stored without the payment of duties. The owners of the warehouse must normally give a bond to Customs for the duty on the goods held in the store, hence the common name, BOND. See also FREE STORE.
BOTH-TO- BLAME COLLISION CLAUSE:When two vessels collide, they become liable to each other proportionately for the total damage. The vessel with the lesser damage may impose upon the cargo being carried to contribute to the amount to be paid to the other vessel. The "Both to Blame Collision Clause" in the cargo policy provides that in such event, the cargo policy will cover such contribution. See "Collision Clause" and "Cross Liabilities."
BOW THRUSTER: A propeller at the lower sea-covered part of the bow of the ship which turns at right angles to the fore-and-aft line and thus provides transverse thrust as a maneuvering aid. See also STERN THRUSTER.
B/P or BOP: Balance of payments.
BOX: Shipping container (USA).
BOX CONTAINER: Shipping container enclosed on all sides, normally with doors in the rear only.
BOX PALLET: A pallet with sides (and top) mostly of wire mesh or grills.
BREAKBULK VESSEL: A general, multipurpose, cargo ship that carrier’s cargoes of non-uniform sizes, often on pallets, resulting in labor-intensive loading and unloading; calls at various ports to pick up different kinds of cargoes.
BREAK BULK : The process of assimilating many small shipments into one large shipment at a central point, to be sorted or disseminated after discharge, so that economies of scale may be achieved; to commence discharge of cargo.
BREAKAGE (US): Where the cargo does not completely fill or fit the capacity or where the weight load limit of the container is reached in advance or the volumetric limit leaving empty space in the container. See also WASTE CUBE.
BRIDGE: Used loosely to refer to the navigating section of the vessel where the wheel house and chart room are located; erected structure amidships or aft or very rarely fore over the main deck of a ship to accommodate the wheelhouse.
BROKEN STOWAGE: The lost space where a cargo is such that it cannot fit all available space.
BROKERAGE: Percentage of freight payable to broker (by owners in c/up’s) or applicable to sale or purchase.
BSR: Basic Service Rate. The basic freight rate (generally European).
BULK: Cargo shipped in loose condition and of a homogeneous nature. Cargoes that are shipped unpacked either dry, such as grain and ore, or liquid, such as petroleum products. Bulk service generally is not provided on a regularly scheduled basis, but rather as needed, on specialized ships, transporting a specific commodity.
BULK CARRIER: Ship specifically designed to transport vast amounts of cargoes such as sugar, grain, wine, ore, chemicals, liquefied natural gas; coal and oil. See also LNG Carrier, Tanker, and OBO Ship.
BULK FREIGHT CONTAINER: Any container which, by design, will allow bulk loading materials.
BULKHEAD: A name given to any vertical partition which separates different compartments or spaces from one another.
BUNKERS: Fuel consumed by the engines of a ship; compartments or tanks in a ship for fuel storage.
BUOY: A floating object employed as an aid to mariners to mark the navigable limits of channels, their fairways, sunken dangers, isolated rocks, telegraph cables, and the like; floating devices fixed in place at sea, lake or river as reference points for navigation or for other purposes.

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CABAF: Currency and Bunker Adjustment Factor. An adjustment factor representing variations in the price of bunkers and exchange rates, expressed as a plus/minus percentage which is applied to freight calculations. See also BAF, CAF.
CABLE SHIP: A specially constructed ship for the laying and repairing of telegraph and telephone cables across channels, seas, lakes, and oceans.
CABOTAGE: The carriage of goods or passengers for remuneration taken on at one point and discharged at another point within the territory of the same country.The use of foreign flagged vessels for internal or domestic transportation.
CABOTAGE POLICIES: Reservation of a country's coastal (domestic) shipping for its own flag vessels.
CACCI: Confederation of Asian Chambers of Commerce and Industry.
CAF: Currency Adjustment Factor. An adjustment factor representing variations in exchange rates expressed as a plus/minus percentage which is applied to freight calculations. See also CABAF.
CAMEL: Common Automatic Manifest Exchange Language. A computer protocol designed to facilitate the transfer manifest information to/from continental marketing organizations.
CAPACITY: The total internal volume (of a container).
CARGO DESCRIPTION :Description of cargo usually supplied by the shipper or coded from the shippers description CARGO FLAT: A device which is stronger and more durable than a pallet used as intermodal transport equipment in some short sea trades.
CARGO HANDLING: The act of loading and discharging a cargo ship.
CARGO POOLING :Arrangement whereby members of some Shipping Conferences agree on a set percentage that each member line would carry in any one 'Pool Year'.
CARNET: A document of permission issued by an exporting country authority which allows cargo to enter a country on a temporary basis with no, or minimum, customs formalities.
CARGO PLAN: A plan giving the quantities and description of the various grades carried in the ship's cargo tanks, after the loading is completed.
CARGO PREFERENCE: Reserving a portion of a nation's imports and exports to national-flag vessels.
CARGO RETENTION CLAUSES: Clauses introduced by charterers based on shortage of delivered cargo because of increased oil prices.
CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA ACT: A law first enacted in 1904 and amended last in 1994 covering the transportation of merchandise by sea from ports of Australia. Similar acts exist in most maritime countries.
CARRIERS: Owners or operators of vessels providing transportation to shippers. The term is also used to refer to the vessels.
CARRIER BILL OF LADING Shipping company issued bill of lading for carriage of cargo from place of origin to the place of destination stated on the bill of lading.
CATAMARAN :A double or treble-hulled vessel constructed in wood, aluminum or reinforced glass fiber and is also composed of two or three hulls diagonally joined together by various methods. Normally no ballast is needed to counteract the center buoyancy since it enjoys good stability at sea.
CATTLE CONTAINER :Partly open container equipped with rails, boxes and cribs for the transport of livestock.
CATUG :Short for Catamaran Tug. A rigid catamaran tug connected to a barge. When joined together, they form and look like a single hull of a ship; oceangoing integrated tug-barge vessels.
A raised bridge running fore and aft from the mishap, and also called "walkway". It affords safe passage over the pipelines and other deck obstructions.
CBF :Cubic feet.
CBM (or M3) :Cubic meters.
C/C: Full (Cellular) Container Ship.
CCC: Commodity Credit Corporation (USA).
CCF: Capital Construction Fund: A tax benefit for operators of U.S.-built, U.S.-flag ships in the U.S. foreign, Great Lakes, or noncontiguous domestic trades, by which taxes may be deferred on income deposited in a fund to be used for the replacement of vessels.
CCL: Container control System. Monitors the movement and status of containers.
CCR: Cancel Cargo Receipt.
CDL: Container Daily Logs.
CDS: Construction Differential Subsidy: A direct subsidy paid to U.S. shipyards building U.S.-flag ships to offset high construction costs in American shipyards. An amount of subsidy (up to 50 percent) is determined by estimates of construction cost differentials between U.S. and foreign yards.
CEC:Container Even Cancellation.
CELL POSITION: The position in a cellular container ship in which the container is stowed.
CELLS: Guidance system enabling containers to be carried in a vertical line in the ship, each container supporting the one above it.
Position on board a vessel in which a cargo container is stowed, designated by Bay-Column-Height in a stow.
CELLULAR VESSEL :A ship specialized for container transport in which the holds have vertical guides into which containers are lowered to form secure stacks retained at all four corners.
CENTRAL WOOL FACILITY: Wool dump authorized to dump wool on behalf of the Container Operators.
CENTRALIZATION :Container movement to/from non-basic service port CENTRE OF GRAVITY, G of G: Point at which load will balance or is equilibrium.
CERTIFICATE OF ORIGIN: Certificate issued by an approved body in the country of origin which attests to the origin of goods. Chambers of Commerce is normally approved bodies.
CERTIFICATE OF REGISTRY: A document specifying the nation registry of the vessel.
C & F (Cost and Freight): A trading term used in the sale of goods to denote that the price includes the main freight to the named port of destination.
C & I (Cost and Insurance): A trading term used in the sale of goods to denote that the price includes the costs to the port of export and marine insurance to the destination.
CFS, CONTAINER FREIGHT STATION: A depot in which ISO shipping containers are stored, packed, unpacked, received and delivered. Normally the CFS will also have facilities for quarantine, fumigation, etc. The containers are then sent to or received from a CONTAINER TERMINAL. Also called a Container Depot or Container Park in some countries.
CFS CHARGE: A charge for LCL packing/unpacking.
CHANDLER: A person who deals in the selling of provisions, dried stores, etc.
CHARTERER: The person to whom is given the use of the whole of the carrying capacity of a ship for the transportation of cargo or passengers to a stated port for a specified time.
CHARTER RATES: The tariff applied for chartering tonnage in a particular trade.
CHARTER PARTY: A contractual agreement between a ship owner and a ship operator or cargo owner, usually arranged by a broker, whereby a ship is chartered (hired) either for one voyage or a period of time.
CHEMICAL TANKER: Specially designed for the transport of chemicals.
CHIEF ENGINEER: The senior engineer officer responsible for the satisfactory working and upkeep of the main and auxiliary machinery and boiler plant on board ship.
CHIEF MATE: The officer in the deck department next in rank to the master; second in command of a ship. He is next to the master; most especially in the navigation and as far as the deck department is concerned. The chief mate assumes the position of the Master in his absence.
C.I.F. (Cost, Insurance and Freight): A trading term used in the sale of goods to denote that the price includes the main freight and marine insurance costs to port of destination.
CIM: Container Inquiry Message.
CIR: Container Inspection Report.
CKD: Completely Knocked Down. Complete goods which are shipped at a sub-component or component level, especially vehicles.
CL: Container Load.
CLASSIFICATION SOCIETY: Worldwide experienced and reputable societies. Which undertake to arrange inspections and advise on the hull and machinery of a ship? A private organization that supervises vessels during their construction and afterward, in respect to their seaworthiness, and the placing of vessels in grades or "classes" according to the society's rules for each particular type. It is not compulsory by law that a ship-owner has his vessel built according to the rules of any classification society; but in practice, the difficulty in securing satisfactory insurance rates for an unclassed vessel makes it a commercial obligation.
CLC: Container Location Change.
CLEAN SHIP: Refers to tankers which have their cargo tanks free of traces of dark persistent oils which remain after carrying crude and heavy fuel oils.
CLIP-ON UNIT, COU: Separate refrigeration unit which can be clipped on to an insulated container.
CLOSED CONFERENCE: Agreement between a restricted number of shipping companies and shippers where the shipping companies agree to operate a service on a particular route to get the best economy of operation and shippers are required to use only conference ships.
CLP: Container Load Plan.
CMO: Container Movement Order.
CN: Consignee Notification - cargo arrival notification.
CNA: Continental Name and Address.
CNS: Credit Note Adjustment Slip.
COA: Contract of affreightment, e.g. bill of lading, sea way bill, air way bill.
COASTWISE: Domestic shipping routes along a single coast.
COD: Cash (Collect) on Delivery.
CODE OF LINER CONDUCT (UNCTAD): A convention drafted under the auspices of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development which provides that all shipping traffic between two foreign countries is to be regulated as far as the quantities of shipments are concerned on the following percentages -- 40% for owners of the country of origin, 40% for owners of country of destination, and 20% for owners of the country which is neither the origin nor the destination.
COGSA :Carriage of Goods by Sea COLLAPSIBLE CONTAINER : A container, the major components of which can be dis-assembled and later re-assembled for use.
A container with hinged sides (and top) designed to be folded down to a small proportion of its erected volume. See also FOLDING CONTAINER.
COLLECT, CCX: Freight and/or other charges to be collected in the destination country. See also DUE AT DESTINATION.
COLLIER: Vessel used for transporting coal.
COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM: Electronic system commonly used to prevent collisions in inland navigable waterways.
COLREG: Convention on International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea.
COMBI: Combination passenger/cargo vessel; a vessel specifically designed to carry both containers and conventional cargoes.
COMBINED SHIPS: Ships which can carry both liquid and dry bulk cargoes.
COMBINED TRANSPORT: Carriage of goods by at least two different modes of transport between the points of shipment and destination of the goods.
COMBINED TRANSPORT DOCUMENT: A contract of affreightment evidencing the contract for the performance and/or procurement of performance of combined transport of goods (e.g.: a combined transport bill of lading).
COMBINED TRANSPORT OPERATOR: A person or organization issuing a combined transport document.
COMITE MARITIME INTERNATIONAL: The International Agency of national maritime law associations, authors of The Hague and Hamburg Rules.
COMPLEMENT: The number of officers and crew employed upon a vessel for its safe navigation and operation.
CONES: Devices for positioning containers.
Devices on ships to bind and aid security of container deck stows.
CONEX CONTAINER: Early type of container used by US Army to speed up transport of war materials during World War II.
CONFERENCE: An affiliation of ship-owners operating over the same route(s) who agree to charge uniform rates and other terms of carriage. A conference is "closed" if one can enter only by the consent of existing members of the conference. It is "open" if anyone can enter by meeting certain technical and financial standards. Conference members are common carriers.
CONFERENCE TARIFF List of rates, rules and regulations applicable to goods carried on conference vessels.
CONGESTIONS: Port/berth delays.
CONSIGNEE: The person to whom cargo is consigned as stated on the bills of lading or air way bills.
CONSIGNMENT: Single item of cargo described fro freighting, import/export documents, physically carried from one origin to one destination.
CONSOLIDATION: Combining of more than one shipment into a container.
CONSOLIDATOR: A person or organization who arranges consolidation of cargo.
CONSORTIUM (CONSORTIA): Group of (shipping) companies who have combined their vessel facilities and capital resources in order to offer a shipping service for the carriage of goods.
CONSTRUCTION UNIT: Equipped to assist during offshore construction and maintenance work.
CONSIGNOR: The person named in the bill of lading or air way bill as the one from whom the goods have been received for shipment.
CONTAINER :A large rectangular or square container/box of a strong structure that can withstand continuous rough handling from ship to shore and back, especially designed to facilitate the transport of goods, by one or more transport modes, without the need for intermediate reloading, and easy to fit and transport. It opens from one end or side to allow cargo to be stacked and stowed into it. ISO sizes prescribed are normally: 20' x 8' x 8' and 40' x 8' x 8' (imperial measurement), although there are numerous variations on height.
A van, flat rack, open top trailer or other similar trailer body on or into which cargo is loaded and transported without chassis aboard ocean vessels.
CONTAINER BASE: A facility, usually inland, for the collection/distribution of cargo and for stuffing/unstuffy containers. See also CONTAINER DEPOT, CONTAINER PARK.
CONTAINER BERTH: A specialized port facility allowing for high speed reception, delivery and movement of container ships and containers. See also CONTAINER TERMINAL.
CONTAINER DEPOT, CONTAINER PARK: A facility, usually inland, for the collection/distribution of cargo and for stuffing/unstuffy containers. See also CONTAINER BASE.
CONTAINER HEAD: The end of a container opposite the doors.
CONTAINER LOAD: A shipment of sufficient size to fill a container, either by cubic measurement or weight, depending upon governing tariff to meet the provided minimum. See also FCL.
CONTAINER NUMBER: An alpha-numeric number used to uniquely identify an individual container. The alphabetic portion usually indicates the container owner, the last number is a check digit but still forms part of the number (e.g.: OCLU 2032021).
CONTAINER ON FLATCAR Transportation of containers without wheels on railway flatcars.
Rail tariff related to carriage of containers by rail on flatcars (USA).
CONTAINER PART LOAD: Consignment which does not occupy the full capacity of a container nor equals the maximum payload and will therefore allow the inclusion of another or other part loads. See also LCL.
CONTAINER PLAN: Type of container service.
CONTAINER POOL: An agreement between various transport carriers and/or container leasing companies concerning the exchange of containers.
CONTAINER POOLING: System whereby ship owners, manufacturers or operators create a container pool for common use and maximum utilization.
CONTAINER SEAL: A device used with container locking mechanism is order to seal the container, numbered and coded and referenced on the bill of lading and manifest. A broken or damaged seal indicates that the cargo in the container may have been tampered with.
CONTAINER SHIP :A ship constructed in such a way that she can easily stack containers near and on top of each other as well as on deck. A vessel designed to carry standard intermodal containers enabling efficient loading, unloading, and transport to and from the vessel. Oceangoing merchant ship designed to transport a unit load of standard-sized containers 8 feet square and 20 or 40 feet long. The hull is divided into cells that are easily accessible through large hatches, and more containers can be loaded on deck atop the closed hatches. Loading and unloading can precede simultaneously using giant traveling cranes at special berths. Container ships usually carry in the range of 25,000 to 50,000 deadweight tons. Whereas a general-cargo ship may spend as much as 70 percent of its life in port loading and discharging cargo, a container ship can be turned around in 36 hours or less, spending as little as 20 percent of its time in port. This ship type is the result of American design innovation. Specialized types of container ships are the LASH and Sea Bee which carry floating containers (or "lighters,") and Rory ships, which may carry containers on truck trailers.
CONTAINER TANK: A frame, built to ISO container dimensions with normal pickup and locking devices, containing a cylindrical container (tank) for the carriage of bulk liquids, powders or gasses.
CONTAINER TERMINAL: A Container wharf and handling facility for the loading and unloading of ISO containers from ships with suitable container cranes. It may also incorporate a CFS. See also CONTAINER BERTH, WHARF.
CONTAINER TRANSPORT OPERATOR: A term used in the Container Transport Convention to denote the carrier, or contractor, taking responsibility for intermodal transportation of containers.
CONTRACT OF AFFREIGHTMENT (COA): A service contract under which a ship owner agrees to transport a specified quantity of fuel products or specialty products, at a specified rate per ton, between designated loading and discharge ports. This type contract differs from a spot or consecutive voyage charter in that no particular vessel is. Specified. CONTACT RATE: Ocean freight rate applicable to shippers who sign an agreement with a Shipping Conference to ship exclusively with the Conference members to the areas they serve.
CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE: The controlling of the atmosphere within a container (in addition to temperature control) to prolong the storage life of goods, usually fruit or horticultural produce.
CONVENTION RELATIVE AU CONTRACT DE TRANSPORT INTERNATIONAL DE MERCHANDISE: Convention on the International Transport of Goods established in 1956 giving rules concerning the condition of international transport frequently applied to containers.
CONVENTIONAL SHIPS :Ships which have limited special facilities for the fast handling of cargo or for handling specialized cargo, with standard size hatchways, served by derricks or cranes and involving manhandling of cargo to reach stowed position.
CORRUGATED CONTAINER: Container with corrugated walls and ends, etc., which give added strength.
COUPLE, COUPLER: Device for coupling the bottom corner casting when joining two 20' containers into a single 40' unit - 'Twin twenties'.
C/P: Charter Party CPI: Consumer Price Index.
CPM: Cancellation Part Message.
CREW: The personnel engaged on board ship, excluding the master and officers and the passengers on passenger ships.
CREW LIST :List prepared by the master of a ship showing the full names, nationality, passport or discharge book number, rank and age of every officer and crew member engaged on board that ship. This serves as one of the essential ship's documents which are always requested to be presented and handed over to the customs and immigration authorities when they board the vessel on arrival.
CROSS-TRADES: Foreign-to-foreign trade carried by ships from a nation other than the two trading nations.
CRUDE OIL WASHING: A technique of cleaning tanks in oil tankers.
CUBE OUT: When the volumetric capacity of the container has been reached in advance of the permitted weight limit.
CUBIC CAPACITY: The most important commercial measurement when the intrinsic weight of the cargo is so low that the ship becomes full without being loaded to the cargo line. Is expressed in cubic meters or cubic feet.
CUSTOMS BROKER: A broker, or agent, who acts on behalf of importers and exporters in the clearance of imported goods through Customs, Quarantine, shipping and other requirements. In Australia the Customs Broker must be licensed by the ACS.
CUSTOMS TARIFF ACT: Australian Act of Parliament imposing customs duties on imported goods.
CUSTOMS VALUE: The value of imported goods as assessed by the Customs Authorities according to the legislation of the importing country. This may be based on the actual value but, in certain cases, may be a notional value. In many countries this value relates to the CIF cost of the goods, but some (E.G.: Australia) relate to point of export or FOB costs.
CUT-OFF, CUTOFF DATE: Date by which certain action must be completed, e.g.: delivery of cargo to ship.
CY: Container Yard. A container depot or terminal.
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DEADFREIGHT: Space booked by shipper or charterer on a vessel but not used.
DEADFREIGHT FACTOR: Percentage of a ship's carrying capacity that is not utilized.
DEAD HEAD: Movement of empty containers from one location to another; relocation.
DEADWEIGHT, DWAT, DWCC: A common measure of ship carrying capacity. The number of tons (2240 lbs.) of cargo, stores and bunkers that a vessel can transport. It is the difference between the number of tons of water a vessel displaces "light" and the number of tons it displaces "when submerged to the 'deep load line'." A vessel's cargo capacity is less than its total deadweight tonnage. The difference in weight between a vessel when it is fully loaded and when it is empty (in general transportation terms, the net) measured by the water it displaces. This is the most common, and useful, measurement for shipping as it measures cargo capacity.
DECK CARGO: Cargo carried on the ship's deck. On conventional ships this cargo may not be covered to the same level of liability by the ship owner or insurance company.
DECK GANG: The officers and seamen comprising the deck department aboard ship. Also called deck crew, deck department, or just deck.
DECKHAND :Seaman who works on the deck of a ship and remains in the wheelhouse attending to the orders of the duty officers during navigation and maneuvering He also comes under the direct orders of the bosun.
DECK LOG :Also called Captain's Log. A full nautical record of a ship's voyage, written up at the end of each watch by the deck officer on watch. The principal entries are: courses steered; distance run; compass variations, sea and weather conditions; ship's position, principal headlands passed; names of lookouts, and any unusual position, principal headlands passed; names of lookouts, and any unusual happenings such as fire, collision, and the like..
DECK OFFICER :As distinguished from engineer officer, refers to all officers who assist the master in navigating the vessel when at sea, and supervise the handling of cargo when in port.
DECK HOUSE :Small superstructure on the top deck of a vessel which contains the helm and other navigational instruments.
DEEP SEA TRADES :The traffic routes of both cargo and passenger vessels which are regularly engaged on the high seas or on long voyages.
DEEP STOWAGE :Any bulk, bagged or other type of cargo stowed in single hold ships.
DEFERRED REBATE :Charge levied on the Southbound leg of sailings within AESC to those clients not signatories to the Conference Agreement (Australia).
DEHUMIDIFICATION :Process of blowing warm, dry air into a full container of cargo to reduce the moisture content of the air and contents in the container and to thereby minimize the possibility of condensation damage.
DELIVERY ORDER :A document issued by a shipping company or freight forwarder authorizing delivery of cargo from its place of landing and storage.
DELIVERY ORDER FEE :A charge for issuing a delivery order.
DELIVERY ZONE CHARGE :Delivery charge in the country of destination.
DEMURRAGE :Compensation payable for the detention of goods or equipment beyond a certain agreed time period, e.g.: A fee levied by the shipping company upon the port or supplier for not loading or unloading the vessel by a specified date agreed upon by contract. Usually, assessed upon a daily basis after the deadline.
A fee levied by the shipping company upon the consignee for not returning a shipping container within the specified time after taking delivery.
A fee levied by Australia Post upon the consignee of imported parcel post articles which are not cleared through Customs and delivered within the specified time, normally 5 days.
DESPATCH :Time saved, reward for quick turnaround - in dry cargo only DESTINATION :Final point/place to which cargo is delivered to consignee/customer.
DESTINATION ZONE CHARGE :Charge for that portion of the 'through service' applying to land delivery from the overseas destination port to the inland destination.
DETENTION :Where demurrage is not agreed in the charter party, or only a limited amount of demurrage is agreed, a shipowner can sometimes recover damages for detention.
DETENTION CHARGE :Compensation payable for the detention of goods or equipment beyond a certain agreed time period.
DEVANNING :Unpacking of containers.
DEVIATION :Vessel departure from specified voyage course which the vessel should follow in performance of the contract of carriage.
DEW POINT :Temperature at which air becomes saturated with water vapor and any further drop in temperature will cause water droplets to condense out.
DFAT :Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (Australia).
DFT :Draft.
DIMENSIONS: Height, width, length of an article (e.g.: container, cargo) measured parallel to each of its axes ad expressed in order.
DIO: Departed Import Container from Overseas.
DISABLED SHIP :When a ship is unable to sail efficiently or in a seaworthy state as a result of engine trouble, lack of officers or crew, damage to the hull or ship's gear.
DISCHARGES: An essential document for officers and seamen as it serves an official certificate confirming sea experience in the employment for which he was engaged.
DISCHARGING: Unloading DISPATCH BAYS: The point from which containers are physically loaded or unloaded.
DISPOSABLE CONTAINER :A container which, because of its type of manufacture, can be abandoned after it has made an economic journey.
DISPOSABLE PALLET :Pallet which is lightly constructed (e.g.: of thin timber, fiber board or plastic) which is used for only one or two journeys. See also EXPENDABLE PALLET.
DOBSON LEGS :Apparatus for lifting and lowering containers consisting of four separate hydraulically operated legs placed at each bottom corner casting of the container and operated together via a central pump connected to each leg by hoses.
DOCK LEVELERS :Various devices used to bring the level of a loading bay to the height of a container, usually on a truck or trailer.
DOD :Department of Defense.
DOE :Department of Energy (USA).
DOMESTIC OFFSHORE TRADES :Domestic shipping routes serving Alaska and non-continental U.S. States and territories.
DOOR-TO-DOOR :Through transport of a consignment of goods (in a container) from consignor to consignee without any discharging or reloading of goods or change in agreement, except for any Customs control or intervention.
DOOR-TO-DOOR DOCUMENTATION One set of documents which provides for the delivery of a consignment of goods from point to point, e.g.: from the consignor's source to the consignee's store.
DOT :Department of Transportation (USA).
DOUBLE BOTTOM :General term for all watertight spaces contained between the outside bottom plating, the tank top and the margin plate. The double bottoms are sub-divided into a number of separate tanks which may contain boiler feed water, drinking water, fuel oil, ballast, etc.
DRAFT :The depth of a ship in the water. The vertical distance between the waterline and the keel, in the U.S. expressed in feet, elsewhere in meters.
DRAYAGE :Inland haulage.
DRILLING UNIT :Fitted with drilling rig (oil derrick with rotary drill and a mud pumping system), drilling for petroleum.
DRILL SHIP :Regular ship shaped vessel, production ship. Positioned by anchors or dynamic positioning. Has its own propulsion machinery.
DROP-OFF CHARGE :Charge made by container owner on termination of hire of a container. Often levied to discourage delivery of containers in low demand areas where the leasing company may be forced to move the containers out to a more profitable area.
DRY BOX :Container for transporting general cargo.
DRY BULK CONTAINER :Container designed for transporting dry bulk powders or particulate products.
DRY CARGO :General cargo - merchandise other than liquid carried in bulk.
DRY CARGO SHIP :Vessel which carriers all merchandise, excluding liquid in bulk.
DRY DOCK :An enclosed basin into which a ship is taken for underwater cleaning and repairing. It is fitted with water tight entrance gates which when closed permit the dock to be pumped dry.
DRY FREIGHT :Any dry cargo not requiring controlled temperature protection.
DRY ICE :Frozen (solid) carbon dioxide DSG :Locks which are inserted into the corner castings of containers and which lock into these coatings when turned.
DUAL PURPOSE SHIP :Specially constructed ship able to carry different types of cargoes such as ore and/or oil.
DUE AT DESTINATION :Freight and/or other charges to be collected in the destination country. See also COLLECT, CCX.
DUE AT ORIGIN :Freight and/or other charges to be collected in the origin country.
DUNNAGE :A term applied to loose wood or other material used in a ship's hold or in a shipping container, not being a part of the cargo, to prevent the cargo from moving or being damaged in transit.
DWT :Deadweight tons.
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EBA :Enterprise Based Agreement (Australia). An industrial agreement between an enterprise and its employees, involving the representative Union and certified by the Federal Industrial Commission, covering employment conditions and rates of pay. See also AWA.
EC :European Community ECN - EXPORT CLEARANCE NUMBER :An identification number issued by the Australian Customs Service following lodgment of shipment details by the exporter (or agent) required to allow the export of goods.
ECT :European Container Terminal - Rotterdam.
EDIFICE - EDI For the Input of Customs Entries (Australia). :An Australian-wide computer network run by ACS and subscribed to by Customs Brokers whereby the Customs Brokers can batch process and enter details of imported goods into the Australian Customs Service (ACS). It can be interfaced with document data, including EDIFACT standard documents. See also COMPILE.
EEC :European Economic Community.
EFIC :Export Finance and Insurance Corporation (Australia). A Federal agency that aids in financing exports of Australian goods and services through loan guarantees, and insurance.
ENTRY :A customs form used for the clearance of ships or merchandise. See also COMPILE, EDIFICE.
EQUIPMENT HANDOVER AGREEMENT, EHA :Agreement covering the conditions under which containers may be passed into the custody of shippers/consignees - records the condition of the container.
EQUIPMENT HANDOVER CHARGE, EHC :Charge for lifting container off local transport and on to the ship at the terminal.
EQUIPMENT INTERCHANGE RECEIPT :Form used to record acceptance of equipment ETA :Estimated time of arrival ETD :Estimated time of departure EUC :Expected Unit Cost.
EURO PALLET :Flat pallet, standard size: 800mm x 1200mm, used within the European Pallet Pool.
EUROPEAN PALLET POOL:Pool for exchanging standard sized pallets in Europe for cargo handling traffic.
EURO-RAIL-ROUTE-WAGGON :Standardized railway wagon for 'piggy-back' transport of trailers and trailer-mounted containers in Europe.
EUSC :Effective U.S. Control.
EVC :Expected Volume and Cost.
EVEN KEEL:When the draft of a ship fore and aft are the same.
EXIMBANK :Export-Import Bank (USA). A Federal agency that aids in financing exports of U.S. goods and services through direct loans, loan guarantees, and insurance.
EXIT :Australian Customs Service computer system for processing and clearing exports.
EXPENDABLE PALLET :Pallet which is either by construction or cost to shippers does not required to be returned or accounted for. See also DISPOSABLE PALLET.
EXPORT CONTAINER MANIFEST :List of export consignments, in a container or package sequence, relating to a particular vessel containing cargo information as required by the body for whom the list is prepared.
EXW (Ex Works) :A trading term used in the sale of goods to denote that the price includes only the cost of the product at the warehouse/factory gates before any transport costs are included. In USA this is normally referred to as FOB.
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FAC: 1.Fast as can.
2.Federal Airports Commission (Australia).
FACS :Federation of American Controlled Shipping (USA).
FAK :See FREIGHT ALL KINDS FAS (Free Along Side of ship) :A trading term used in the sale of goods to denote that the price includes the costs to the port of export.
FCL - FULL CONTAINER LOAD :A shipment of sufficient size to fill a container, either by cubic measurement or weight, depending upon governing tariff to meet the provided minimum. See also CONTAINER LOAD.
FCL ABATE(MENT) :See FCL Rebate FCL REBATE :Incentive to FCL customers usually as a rebate on the basic service rate allowed on some (bulk) commodities shipped as FCL.
FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION (FMC) :Authorized tariffs and rate-making procedures on conferences operating in the USA.
FEEDER :A grain container or reservoir constructed around the hatchway between two decks of a ship which when filled with grain automatically feeds or fills in the vacant areas in the lower holds.
FEEDER SERVICE: Positioning of loaded containers between actual terminal ports and non-basic service ports by a subsidiary service (rail, road, sea).
FEEDER SHIP: Vessel used in short sea trade to service ports at which deep-sea container ships do not call - a vessel used on a feeder service.
FEEDING :Container movements to/from non-basic service ports at cost of carrier - centralization.
FEU :Forty Foot Equivalent Unit - shipping containers. 1 x 40' container = 1 FEU, 2 x 40' containers = 2 FEU, etc. NOTE: it is much more common to use TEU (Twenty Equivalent Unit). See also TEU.
FHEX :Fridays, holidays excluded (USA).
FHINC :Fridays, holidays included (USA).
FIFO: First in, first out.
FIO: Free in and out.
FIOST :Free in and out, stowed and trimmed FIREMAN :An unlicensed member of the engine, room staff whose duties consist in standing watch in the boiler room and insuring the oil burning equipment is working properly.
FIRST REFUSAL :First attempt at best offer that can be matched FITTINGS :Loading of goods into containers.
FIXTURE :Conclusion of shipbrokers negotiations to charter a ship - an agreement.
FLAGS OF CONVENIENCE :The registration of ships in a country whose tax on the profits of trading ships is low or whose requirements concerning manning or maintenance are not stringent. Sometimes referred to as flags of necessity; denotes registration of vessels in foreign nations that offer favorable tax structures and regulations; also the flag representing the nation under whose jurisdiction a ship is registered. Ships are always registered under the laws of one nation but are not always required to establish their home location in that country.
FLASH POINT :The temperature at which a liquid produces enough vapor to form an inflammable mixture with air.
FLAT, FLAT RACK, FLAT CONTAINER :a container consisting of a rectangular base fitted with corner posts or ends. See also BOLSTER, FLAT-TAINER, PLATFORM.
FLAT-TAINER: Container base and end bulkeads, with or without tail door, rigid of foldable, topless or sideless or loose stanchions and runner for sides notwithstanding. See also FLAT.
FLEXI-TANK :Rubber (plastic) tank for the carriage of bulk liquids that can be secured by a harness inside a standard ISO container.
FLEXI-VAN SYSTEM:System of transferring containers between road and rail vehicles by transferring van from road bogies to a rail-car equipped with a turn-table.
FLIP-FLOP :Latching device.
FLOATING OIL STORAGE :Oil stored on floating vessels. It has been the practice for oil to be stored in large laid-up oil tankers in order to offset the loss involved while the tankers are inactive.
FLOTSAM :Goods lost by shipwreck or cast overboard, which remains afloat.
FMC :Federal Maritime Commission (USA).
FO :Fuel oil/free out.
FOB (Free on Board).
Export trading term in which the price quoted by the exporter does not include the costs of ocean transportation, but does include loading on board the vessel. Not generally used in USA, where the term FAS is more common.
FOF :Fix on failure.
FOLDING CONTAINER :A container with hinged sides (and top) designed to be folded down to a small proportion of its erected volume. See also COLLAPSIBLE CONTAINER.
FORCE MAJEURE: Clause limiting responsibilities of charterers, shippers and receiver of cargo, due forces beyond the control of man - Act of God.
FORECASTLE: The raised part of the forward end of a ship's hull. The inside space may be used for crew accommodation or quarters, though on new ships this space is being used for the storage of paints, tackle, deck and engine stores, tarpaulins, etc.
FORK LIFT TRUCK, FLT :Mobile, hydraulically operated (normally), lifting and stacking machine with horizontal arms (forks) to enter under the load for bottom lift - may also be equipped for top or side lift.
FORK POCKETS :Recesses in the sides of containers or other goods for the entry of the forks of fork lift trucks. See also TYNE HOLES.
FORWARD :At or in the direction of the bow. Also the fore part of the ship.
FORWARDING INSTRUCTIONS :Form completed by the shipper containing instructions for forwarding of the goods. It forms the basis of the Interim Receipt and the Bill of Lading.
FOUR-WAY PALLET :A pallet which can be lifted from any side.
FREE DAYS, FREE TIME :Time allowed by equipment owner before charges (demurrage) becomes payable. May be for use of containers by shipper or for storage of container by terminal/depot, etc.
FREE PRATIQUE :Clearance by the Health Authorities FREE STORE :A store in which goods not subject to the control of Customs are stored, as opposed to a bonded store.
FREIGHT: Money payable on delivery of cargo in a mercantile condition.
Some Different Types of Freight Are: •COLLECT FREIGHT - Freight payable at destination provided the vessel delivers the goods in specie.
•GUARANTEED FREIGHT - Freight payable whether the goods are delivered or not, provided the failure to deliver the goods resulted from causes beyond the carrier's control.
ADVANCE FREIGHT - Partial payment of the bill of lading freight in advance.
PREPAID FREIGHT - Payment of the full bill of lading freight in advance; in other respects is the same as guaranteed freight.
FREIGHT ALL KINDS, FAK Uniform rate of tariff applicable irrespective of commodity - the opposite of commodity or class rates.
FREIGHT CHARGE :Cost of freight, unless specifically stated to the contrary, obtained by multiplying the number for freight tonnes by the appropriate Basic Service Rate or Ocean Rate as appropriate.
FREIGHT FORWARDER :A business or person who arranges shipments for customers usually break bulk and issues a HBL (sea) or HAWB (air). The freight forwarder then consolidates a number of shipments under one BL or AWB. The freight forwarder does not actually carry the cargo or conduct business for the ship.
FREIGHT RATE:The charge made for the transportation of freight. See also BSR.
FREIGHT TONNE, FREIGHT TON :Measurement tonne (ton) or weight tonne (ton) which yields the greater freight charge at the appropriate rate.
FRONT LINE :An Australian Customs initiative whereby the ACS forms partnerships with approved importers, customs brokers, shipping companies and the like to jointly detect and report smuggling, especially narcotics and other dangerous goods, false declarations, etc.
FRUSTRATION :Chatterers when canceling agreement sometimes quote 'doctrine of frustration' i.e. vessel is lost, extensive delays.
FULL TILT CONTAINER :Container with full sides and roof (may also be ends) covered with a soft top or tarpaulin, drop sides non-withstanding.
FULLY LOADED WEIGHT AND CAPACITY, FWC :The gross weight and capacity of a container, normally shown on the outside of the container.
FUMIGATION: Quarantine treatment using a fumigant gas (Note: methyl bromide, previously commonly used, is now prohibited in certain countries, e.g.: USA) to kill and/or prevent infestation by insects, etc.
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G FACTOR : Indicates the constant multiplying factor when considering the effects of acceleration on a mass (load).
GA :General Average.
GANGWAY :A narrow portable platform used as a passage, by persons entering or leaving a vessel moored alongside a pier or quay.
GANTRY CRANE : Crane with horizontal traverse on which the runner moves forward and back. For container gantry cranes the load is carried by the runner spreader.
GAS TANKER : Specially designed for the transport of condensed (liquefied) gases. The most important gases are: ammonia, ethylene, LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas), which consists mainly of methane, and is cooled to a temperature of minus 163 degrees Celsius, and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) such as butane and propane.
GATT : General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade. Now known as WTO - World Trade organization.
GCCC : Geneva Customs Convention on Containers.
GDP : Gross Domestic Product: The total of goods and services produced by a nation over a given period, usually 1 year.
GENERAL AVERAGE : Average means Loss, hence general average means general loss in a maritime sense. If an event occurs which endangers the whole voyage, then all loss which arises in consequence of extraordinary sacrifices made or incurred for the preservation of the ship and cargo come within the ambit of general average, and the master or Owners may declare General Average. Such events may include stranding, fire, loss of propellor, etc. Specialized GA Adjusters then assess the potential damages and proportion costs against all parties to the voyage, including the ship owners, cargo owners, etc. All normal marine insurance policies include cover against GA. The Yorke-Antwerp Rules are an agreed international protocol for dealing with this event.
GENERAL CARGO : A non-bulk oil cargo composed of miscellaneous goods.
GENERAL SHIP : Ship used by either shipowner or charterer to carry goods of a number of shippers under different bills of lading.
GENEVA CUSTOMS CONVENTION ON CONTAINERS : 1956 Convention regulating the international circulation of containers.
GENOA CORNER FITTING : Container corner made to ISA recommended design, sometimes called corner casting, and used to grip the container by interlocking for handling.
GENOA PORT DIFFERENTIAL : Surcharge on goods consigned through the port of Genoa.
GEOGRAPHICAL ROTATION : Ports in order of calling GMDSS : Global Maritime Distress and Safety System. A global system of inter-linked satellites providing a positioning system combined with emergency communications. A suitably equipped ship merely has to push a button on the console and its position and other data are automatically transmitted and displayed on equipment in emergency centers. Completed late 1998-99.
GNP : Gross National Product: GDP plus the net income accruing from foreign sources.
GOODS : equivalent to CARGO.
GOVERNMENT IMPELLED: Cargo owned by or subsidized by the U.S. Federal Government.
GP : General Purpose container. See also DRY CONTAINER.
GPD : Genoa Port Differential.
GRAIN CAPACITY: Cubic capacity in 'grain".
GREAT LAKES PORTS : Ports in the lakes of Canada and/or USA popular for grain shipments. In Canada: Port Arthur and Fort William in Lake Superior; Hamilton, Kingston, Toronto and Prescott in Lake Ontario. In USA: Chicago, Milwaukee in Lake Michigan; Duluth and Superior in Lake Superior and Toledo in Lake Erie.
GREAT LAKES SHIP: Cargo ship developed to carry raw materials and manufactured goods on the Great Lakes. Most carry bulk cargoes of grain, iron ore or coal.
GROSS FREIGHT: Freight money collected or to be collected without calculating the expenses relating to the running cost of the ship for the voyage undertaken.
GROSS AND NET TONNAGE (GT and NT): Gross tonnage is the basis on which manning rules and safety regulations are applied, and registration fees are reckoned. Port fees are also often reckoned on the basis of GT and NT. GT and NT are defined according to formulas which take account, among other things, of the volume of the vessel's enclosed spaces (GT) and the volume of its holds (NT).
GROSS REGISTERED TONS: A common measurement of the internal volume of a ship with certain spaces excluded. One ton equals 100 cubic feet; the total of all the enclosed spaces within a ship expressed in tons each of which is equivalent to 100 cubic feet.
GROSS VEHICLE WEIGHT - GVW: Combined total weight of vehicle and load inclusive of prime-mover.
GROSS WEIGHT - GWT: Weight of cargo plus all packing equipment including cargo.
GROUNDING: Deliberate contact by a ship with the bottom while she is moored or anchored as a result of the water level dropping.
GROUPAGE: Service providing facilities for small consignments to be consolidated and transported (in a container).
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HAGUE RULES : International agreement setting forth minimum conditions for the carriage of cargo under a bill of lading, including limits on shipowners liability. Usually incorporated into the law of the exporting country, e.g.: Sea Carriage of Gods Act 1904 (Australia). To be replaced by Hague-Visby Riles and latterly by Hamburg Rules.
HAGUE-VISBY RULES : International agreement setting forth minimum conditions for the carriage of cargo under a bill of lading, including limits on shipowners liability. To replace Hague Rules and, in turn, be replaced latterly by Hamburg Rules.
HALF-HEIGHT CONTAINER : A container with open top, with or without a soft cover, between 1.12m and 1.45m (4'0" and 4'9") high.
HALF TILT CONTAINER : Container with larger part of sides, or sides and roof, covered by a tarpaulin or flexible cover.
HAMBURG RULES : International agreement setting forth minimum conditions for the carriage of cargo under a bill of lading, including limits on shipowners liability. Intended to replace Hague Rules and, latterly, the Hague-Visby Rules.
HANDLING BY TWIST LOCKS : Handling containers by means of locks which are inserted into the corner castings of the container which, when they are turned, lock into these castings.
HARBOR DUES : Various local charges against all seagoing vessels entering a harbor, to cover maintenance of channel depths, buoys, lights, etc. all harbors do not necessarily have this charge.
HARBOR MASTER : A person usually having the experience of a certificated master mariner and having a good knowledge of the characteristics of the port and its whole area. He administers the entire shipping movements that take place in and within reach of the port he is responsible for.
HARD AGROUND : A vessel which has gone aground and is incapable of refloating under her own power.
HARD CURRENCY : A currency which is sound enough to be accepted internationally and which is usually fully convertible. See also SOFT CURRENCY.
HARD TOP CONTAINER: Closed container with openable or lift able hard roof.
HARDWARE: Ancillary equipment used on containers such as door hinges and locking devices.
HARTER ACT (1893): This USA statute refers to merchandise or property transported from or between ports of the United States and foreign ports. Now partially superseded by the US Carriage of Goods by Sea Act of 1936.
HATCH: An opening, generally rectangular, in a ship's deck affording access into the compartment below.
HAWB: House Air Way Bill. A document of affreightment issued by an air freight forwarder used to cover the movement of goods by air. The air freight forwarder consolidates a number of HAWB's under one AWB fro transport by an airline. See also AWB.
HAWSER: Large strong rope used for towing purposes and for securing or mooring ships. Hawsers are now mostly made of steel.
HAZARDOUS CARGO: Cargo which is defined as requiring special handling or stowage on a vessel and which is classified as a hazard by the relevant Maritime authority or under the Merchant Shipping Dangerous Goods Rules, or similarly for airfreight.
HAZARDOUS LABELS: Labels fixed to the goods and container indicating the type and level of hazardous cargo contained.
HAZ/OB: Hazardous or Obnoxious cargo.
HEATED CONTAINER: Insulated container fitted with a heat producing appliance which is capable of raising the temperature inside the container and maintaining it within the specified ambient range.
HEAVY LIFT: A package or container weighing more than 'normal' which general requires additional special equipment (crane) and or methods to lift it, incurring an extra charge.
HEAVY LIFT CHARGE: An extra charge imposed for a package of container weighing more than normal and requiring special equipment/methods/safety precautions when being packed/unpacked/loaded/unloaded/handled.
HELM: A tiller or a wheel generally installed on the bridge or wheelhouse of a ship to turn the rudder during maneuvering and navigation. It is in fact the steering wheel of the ship.
HOISTING ROPE: Special flexible wire rope for lifting purposes, generally being of six strands with 19 wires in each strand and in most cases having a hemp rope at the center.
HIGH CUBE CONTAINER: A container with height greater than the ISO standard of 9ft.
HIRE : T/C remuneration HITCHMENT CARGO: Cargo/containers from different origins to be included under a single bill of lading, called a 'hitchment bill of lading'.
HOLD: A general name for the spaces below the main deck designated for stowage of general cargo. A hold on a tanker is usually just forward of #1 cargo tank. Some newer tankers have no hold.
HOPPER-TAINER: Container holding one or more hopper bins for loading from the top and discharging by gravity through the bottom.
HOUSE-TO-PIER (wharf): Container loaded inland but unstuffed at pier (wharf) at the destination port.
HOVERCRAFT: A vessel used for the transportation of passengers and cargo riding on a cushion of air formed under it. It is very maneuverable and is also amphibious.
HULL: Shell or body of a ship.
HYDROFOIL: A craft more or less similar to the Hovercraft insofar as it flies over water and thus eliminates friction between the water and the hull. Under acceleration it rises above water but remains in contact with the surface through supporting legs.
HYGROSCOPIC SUBSTANCE: Material capable of absorbing water vapor from the surrounding atmosphere and used in packing goods and containers to minimize contamination or damage from water condensation during transportation and storage. Note: some hygroscopic substances also give up any absorbed water vapor when subject to an increase in temperature (e.g. SILICA GEL), so the selection of such substances must be carefully made to protect cargo transiting through various temperature zones during the course of a voyage.
HAZCHEM: Hazardous Chemical substances. Consignors of goods defined as such must make the appropriate declaration to ship or aircraft operators for permission to ship the goods. The goods must be appropriately labeled, handled and stowed. There are severe penalties for non-compliance which may extend to company managers and directors, etc. See also DANGEROUS CARGO, DANGEROUS LIQUIDS, and HAZARDOUS CARGO.
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IATA: International Air Transport Association - the peak body for airfreight.
ILO : International Labor Organization; Based in Geneva, it is one of the oldest components of the UN system of specialized agencies and has been involved over the years in appraising and seeking to improve and regulate conditions for seafarers. In its unusual tripartite way, involving official representatives of government, employer and employee interests, its joint Maritime Commission have had in hand moves on the employment of foreign seafarers to urge the application of minimum labor standards, on crew accommodation, accident prevention, medical examination and medical care, food and catering and officers competency..
INCOTERMS : A Set of internationally accepted, fully defined trading terms, devised by the ICC in order to minimize differences of interpretation of such terms, for use by any company, person, etc. When used in a Contract of Sale it normally is followed by the revision date to ensure the parties are aware of the correct edition (E.G.: FAS Rotterdam Incoterms 1995). Includes EXW, FAC, FAS, FOB, CFR, CIF, CPT, DAF, DES, DEQ, DDU, and DDP.
ICC: International Chamber of Commerce.
ILO :International Labor Organization; Based in Geneva, it is one of the oldest components of the UN system of specialized agencies and has been involved over the years in appraising and seeking to improve and regulate conditions for seafarers. In its unusual tripartite way, involving official representatives of government, employer and employee interests, its joint Maritime Commission have had in hand moves on the employment of foreign seafarers to urge the application of minimum labor standards, on crew accommodation, accident prevention, medical examination and medical care, food and catering and officers competency..
IMDG: International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code. See also HAZCHEM.
IMF: International Monetary Fund.
IMO: International Maritime Organization: Formerly known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), was established in 1958 through the United Nations to coordinate international maritime safety and related practices.
INERT GAS SYSTEM: A system of preventing any explosion in the cargo tanks of a tanker by replacing the cargo, as it is pumped out, by an inert gas, often the exhaust of the ship's engine. Gas-freeing must be carried out subsequently if worker have to enter the empty tanks.
INFLAMMABLE LIQUIDS: Liquids liable to spontaneous combustion which give off inflammable vapors at or below 80 degrees F. For example, ether, ethyl, benzene, gasoline, paints, enamels, carbon disulfide, etc. See also HAZCHEM.
INLAND WATERS: Term referring to lakes, streams, rivers, canals, waterways, inlets, bays and the like.
INMARSAT: International Maritime Satellite System.
INTEGRATED TUG BARGE: A large barge of about 600 feet and 22,000 tons cargo capacity, integrated from the rear on to the bow of a tug purposely constructed to push the barge.
INTERCOASTAL: Domestic shipping routes serving more than one coast.
INTERIM RECEIPT: Given when the goods are received by the ship prior to the issue of a bill of lading. It used to be given by on behalf of the Mate and is sometimes called a Mates Receipt.
INTERMODALISM: The concept of transportation as a door-to-door service rather than port-to-port. Thus efficiency is enhanced by having a single carrier coordinating the movement and documentation among different modes of transportation.
INTERNATIONAL LOAD LINE CERTIFICATE: A certificate which gives details of a ship's freeboards and states that the ship has been surveyed and the appropriate load lines marked on her sides. This certificate is issued by a classification society (or the Coast Guard USA).
INTERNATIONAL OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND: An inter-governmental agency designed to pay compensation for oil pollution damage, exceeding the ship owner’s liability. It was created by an IMO Convention in 1971 and started its operations in October 1978. Contributions come mainly from the oil companies of member states.
ISO : International Standards organization INTERNATIONAL TONNAGE CERTIFICATE: A certificate issued to a ship-owner by a government department in the case of a ship who’s gross and net tonnages have been determined in accordance with the International Convention of Tonnage Measurement of Ships. The certificate states the gross and net tonnages together with details of the spaces attributed to each.
INTERNATIONAL WATERWAYS: Consist of international straits, inland and interocean canals and rivers where they separate the territories of two or more nations. Provided no treaty is enforced both merchant ships and warships have the right of free and unrestricted navigation through these waterways.
INTERTANKO: An association of independent tanker owners whose aims are to represent the views of its members internationally.
INTRACOASTAL: Domestic shipping routes along a single coast.
ITF : International Transport Workers Federation (Trade Unions) ITINERARY: Route/Schedule IWL Institute Warrant Limits
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JACKUP: A deck with legs that can be jacked up or down. During operations, the legs rest on the sea-bed. When the rig is moved, the legs are retracted, leaving the rig floating. A jack up has normally no propulsion machinery of its own.
JONES ACT: USA: Merchant Marine Act of 1920, Section 27, requires that all U.S. domestic waterborne trade be carried by U.S.-flag, U.S.-built and U.S.-manned vessels.
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KEEL: The lowest longitudinal timber of a vessel, on which framework of the whole is built up; combination of iron plates serving same purpose in iron vessel.
KNOT: Unit of speed in navigation which is the rate of nautical mile (6,080 feet or 1,852 meters) per hour.
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LAID-UP TONNAGE : Ships not in active service; a ship which is out of commission for fitting out, awaiting better markets, needing work for classification, etc.
LAKER: Type of ship which trades only in the Great Lakes of North America. They usually carry grain and ore cargoes.
LANDBRIDGE: A system of through rates and service offered by a carrier for cargo shipments from a foreign port to a port at one part of a land-mass, across land to another port at another part of that land-mass and finally by sea to a foreign port destination.
LASH: Lighter aboard ship: A barge carrier designed to act as a shuttle between ports, taking on and discharging barges.
LASH SHIPS: LASH stand for Lighter aboard Ship. It is a specialized container ship carrying very large floating containers, or "lighters." The ship carries its own massive crane, which loads and discharges the containers over the stern. The lighters each have a capacity of 400 tons and are stowed in the holds and on deck. While, the ship is at sea with one set of lighters, further sets can be made ready. Loading and discharge are rapid at about 15 minutes per lighter, no port or dock facilities are needed, and the lighters can be grouped for pushing by towboats along inland waterways.
LAY/CAN: Lay days/canceling LAYTIME / LAYDAYS: The time allowed by a ship-owner to the charterer or shipper in which to load or discharge the cargo. This may be expressed in days or hours or tons per day. Lay days may be set in running days (every calendar day), working days (excluding days where operations are prevented by bad weather). It may be contractually provided that when the charterer or shipper loads/unloads more quickly than is necessary, he or she will be eligible for payment of an incentive called dispatch money. However, if the loading or unloading time is excessive, the charterer or shipper may have to pay a penalty called demurrage.
LAY-UP: Temporary cessation of trading of a ship by a ship-owner during a period when there is a surplus of ships in relation to the level of available cargoes. This surplus, known as overtonnaging, has the effect of depressing freight rates to the extent that some ship-owners no longer find it economical to trade their ship, preferring to lay them up until there is a reversal in the trend.
L/C: Letter of credit. A banking document (usually) whereby a bank guarantees payment of a bill of exchange (draft) LCL: Less than Container Load. A consignment of cargo which is inefficient to fill a shipping container. It is grouped with other consignments for the same destination in a container at a container freight station.
LIFEBOAT: A specially constructed double ended boat which can withstand heavy, rough seas.
LIFEBOAT DRILL: The master of every vessel is bound by international law to make the officers, crew and passengers adequately acquainted with the procedures of lowering and the use of lifeboats in case of emergency.
LIGHT DISPLACEMENT TONNAGE: The weight of a ship's hull, machinery, equipment and spares. This is often the basis on which ships are paid for when purchased for scrapping. The difference between the loaded displacement and light displacement is the ship's deadweight.
LIGHTER: General name for a broad, flat-bottomed boat used in transporting cargo between a vessel and the shore. The distinction between a lighter and a barge is more in the manner of use than in equipment. The term "lighter" refers to a short haul, generally in connection with loading and unloading operations of vessels in harbor while the term "barge" is more often used when the cargo is being carried to its destination over a long distance.
LIGHTER ABOARD SHIP: An ocean ship which carries barges. These barges are loaded with cargo, often at a variety of locations, towed to the ocean ship, sometimes referred to as the mother ship, and lifted or, in some cases, floated on board. After the ocean crossing, the barges are off-loaded and towed to their various destinations. The ocean ship then receives a further set of barges which have been assembled in readiness. This concept was designed to eliminate the need for specialized port equipment and to avoid transshipment with its consequent extra cost. See also LASH.
LIGHTERAGE: Charge for conveying cargo by lighters or barges.
LIGHTERING: Conveying cargo with another vessel known as a lighter from ship to shore, or vice versa.
LIEN: Retention of property until outstanding debt is paid.
LIFT-ON/LIFT-OFF: A charge made, usually by a container freight station or depot, for lifting a container onto and/or off of a vehicle (e.g.: truck).
LINER: A cargo-carrying ship which is operated between scheduled, advertised ports of loading and discharge on a regular basis.
LINER SERVICE: Vessels operating on fixed itineraries or regular schedules and established rates available to all shippers. The freight rates which are charged are based on the shipping company's tariff or if the company is a member of a liner conference, the tariff of that conference.
LLOYD'S REGISTER OF SHIPPING: British classification society.
LNG: Liquefied Natural Gas, or a carrier of LNG.
LNG CARRIER: Liquefied natural gas carrier, perhaps the most sophisticated of all commercial ships. The cargo tanks are made of a special aluminum alloy and are heavily insulated to carry natural gas in its liquid state at a temperature of -2850F. The LNG ship costs about twice as much as an oil tanker of the same size.
LOAD FACTOR: Percentage of cargo or passengers carried e.g. 4000 tons carried on a vessel of 10000 capacity has a load factor of 40% LOAD LINE: The line on a vessel indicating the maximum depth to which that vessel can sink when loaded with cargo. Also known as marks, Plimsol Line.
LOADED LEG: Subdivision of a ship's voyage during which the ship is carrying cargo.
LOF: Lloyds open form.
LOI: Letter of indemnity.
LO/LO : Lift-on/Liftoff.
LONG TON: Imperial ton of 2,240 pounds = 1016 kg.
LOOKOUT: A member of the crew stationed on the forecastle, or on the bridge, whose duty it is to watch for any dangerous objects or for any other vessels heaving into sight.
LPG: Liquefied Petroleum Gas, or a carrier of LPG.
LSA: Liner Shipping Agreements.
LT, L/T: Long Ton.
LUMPSUM FREIGHT: Money paid to shipper for charter of a ship (or portion) up to stated limit irrespective of quantity of cargo.
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M3 (or CBM) :Cubic meters MAIN DECK: The main continuous deck of a ship running from fore to aft; the principle deck; the deck from which the freeboard is determined.
MANIFEST: A document containing a full list of the ship's cargo, extracted from the bills of lading.
MANNING SCALES: The minimum number of officers and crew members that can be engaged on a ship to be considered as sufficient hands with practical ability to meet every possible eventuality at sea.
DECK DEPARTMENT - LICENSED MASTER (CAPTAIN): Highest officer aboard ship. Oversees all ship operations. Keeps ships records. Handles accounting and bookkeeping. Takes command of vessel in inclement weather and in crowded or narrow waters. Handles communications. Receives and implements instructions from home office.
FIRST MATE (CHIEF MATE): In charge of four to eight watch. Directly responsible for all deck operations (cargo storage and handling, deck maintenance deck supplies). Assigns and checks deck department overtime. Ship's medical officer.
SECOND MATE: In charge of twelve to four watch. Ships navigation officer. Keeps charts (maps) up to date and monitors navigation equipment on bridge.
THIRD MATE: In charge of eight to twelve watch. Makes sure emergency survival equipment (lifeboats, life rings, etc.) are in order. Assists other officers as directed.
ENGINE DEPARTMENT - LICENSED CHIEF ENGINEER: Head of engineer department. Keeps records of all engine parts and repairs. Generally tends to the functioning of all mechanical equipment on ship.
Calculates fuel and water consumption and requirements. Coordinates operations with shoreside port engineer.
FIRST ASSISTANT ENGINEER: In charge of four to eight watch. Usually works from eight to four handling engine maintenance. Assigns duties to unlicensed personnel and monitors and records overtime. Consults with Chief regarding work priorities.
SECOND ASSISTANT ENGINEER: In charge of twelve to four watch. On steam vessels has responsibility for the boilers, on diesels, the evaporators and the auxiliary equipment.
THIRD ASSISTANT ENGINEER: In charge of eight to twelve watch. Maintains lighting fixtures. Repairs malfunctioning accessories in living quarters. Assist other engineers as directed.
DECK DEPARTMENT - UNLICENSED BOATSWAIN (BOSUN): Receives working orders for deck gang from chief mate and passes them onto AB's and ordinaries. Tantamount to foreman, he is on deck directly supervising maintenance operations.
SHIPS CHAIRMAN (SHOP STEWARD): In charge of union business for unlicensed personnel. Handles grievances.
ABLE SEAMEN (AB): Stand watch, during which they steer the vessel, stand lookout, assist the mate on watch and make rounds of the ship to insure that all is in order. They also tie up and untie the vessel to and from the dock and maintain the equipment on deck.
ORDINARY SEAMAN (OS): An apprentice AB assists AB's bosun, and officers, keeps facilities clean.
PUMPMAN AND ELECTRICIAN - QUALIFIED MEMBERS OF THE ENGINE DEPARTMENT (Q.M.E.D.) : Trained in all crafts necessary to engine maintenance (welding, refrigeration, lathe operation, die casting,electricity, pumping, water purification, oiling, evaluating engine gauges, etc.) Usually watchstanders but on some ships day workers.
PUMPMAN (TANKERS): Operates pumps and discharges petroleum products. Maintains and repairs all cargo handling equipment.
EQUIPMENT (LINERS): Maintains and repairs cargo handling equipment and also cargo with special handling characteristics.
WIPERS: Apprentice QMED. Cleans engine room. Assists officers and QMED's.
STEWARD DEPARTMENT CHIEF STEWARD: Orders food. Prepares menus. Assists chief cook in food preparation.
COOK AND BAKER (CHIEF COOK): Cooks and bakes.
STEWARD ASSISTANT Clean galley and mess halls, set tables, prepare salads, clean living quarters.
MARINE INSURANCE: Specialized insurance of ships and/or cargo against risks incidental to a marine adventure. Usually covered by a marine insurance policy with extra clauses to deal with specific risks.
MARITIME ADMINISTRATION (MARAD): USA: Oversees subsidy programs to the United States Merchant Marine. Assigns routes to subsidized liners.
MARITIME LIEN: A claim which attaches to the res, i.e., the ship, freight, or cargo.
MARITIME SUBSIDY BOARD (MSB): USA: A branch within the Maritime Administration which deals with Operating Differential Subsidy and Construction Differential Subsidy.
MARPOL 73/78: The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978.
MASTHEAD LIGHT: A white light positioned over the fore and aft centerline of the vessel.
MIB: Marine Index Bureau (USA).
MFN: Most Favored Nation.
MILLENNIUM BUG: Many systems, especially computers and equipment with embedded computer chips, are likely to fail on 01/01/2000. This is because such equipment stores years by the last 2 numbers (e.g.: 1999 = 99, 2000 = 00) and many computers, etc., are programmed to understand the year 00 to be 1900, etc. See also Y2K.
MINILAND BRIDGE: The process of taking inland cargo bound for export to the coast by rail and loading it directly to the ship. MIRAID Maritime Institute for Research and Industrial Development (USA).
MIXED SHIPMENT: A shipment consisting of more than one commodity, articles described under more than one class or commodity rate item in a tariff.
MICROBRIDGE: A system of through rates and service offered by a carrier for cargo shipments from any inland U.S. location to a port, by sea to a foreign port and finally overland to foreign inland destination.
MOA: Memorandum of agreement.
MODU: Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit.
MOORING LINE: A cable or line to tie up a ship.
MORTGAGE : Loan issued against some security.
MSB: Maritime Subsidy Board (USA).
M/T : Empty Container.Metric tons (2,250 lbs.).
MTC : Maritime Transport Committee, OECD.
MULTIPURPOSE SHIP: Any ship capable of carrying different types of cargo which require different methods of handling. There are several types of ships falling into this category, for example, ships which can carry roll on/roll off cargo together with containers.
MV: Motor vessel. See also SS.
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NATIONAL CARGO BUREAU: A private organization having representatives throughout the main harbors in the U.S. It is empowered to inspect cargoes of a hazardous nature and issue certificates which are automatically approved by the Coast Guard.
NATIONAL FLAG: The flag carried by a ship to show her nationality.
NEOBULK: Shipments consisting entirely of units of a single commodity, such as cars, lumber, or scrap metal.
NET CAPACITY: The number of tons of cargo which a vessel can carry when loaded in salt water to her summer freeboard marks. Also called cargo carrying capacity, cargo deadweight, and useful deadweight.
NET TONNAGE: Equals gross tonnage minus deductions for space occupied by crew accommodations, machinery, navigation equipment and bunkers. It represents space available for cargo (and passengers). Canal tolls are based on net (registered) tonnage.
NON-CONFERENCE LINE: A shipping line which operates on a route served by: liner conference but which is not a member of that conference.
NONCONTIGUOUS : A country which has no access to a port. Domestic shipping routes serving Alaska and non-continental U.S. States and territories.
NOR : Notice of readiness.
NORSKE VERITAS: Norwegian classification society.
NRT: Net registered tons. This tonnage is frequently shown on ship registration papers; it represents the volumetric area available for cargo at 100 cubic feet = 1 ton. It often is used by port and canal authorities as a basis for charges.
NVO, NVOCC: Non-vessel-operating common carrier, a ships agent, conducts business for the ship but does not operate the vessel.
NUW: National Union of Workers (Australia). Replaces, in part, the former Stormen and Packers Union (SPU).
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OBO : Ore/bulk/oil vessel.
OBO SHIP: A multipurpose ship that can carry ore, heavy dry bulk goods and oil. Although more expensive to build, they ultimately are more economical because they can make return journeys with cargo rather than empty as single-purpose ships often must.
OCEAN WAYBILL: A document, issued by a shipping line to a shipper which serves as a receipt for the goods and evidence of the contract carriage.
ODS: Operating Differential Subsidy (USA). A direct subsidy paid to U.S.-flag operators to offset the high operating cost of U.S.-flag ships when compared to foreign-flag counterparts.
OECD: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The Maritime Transport Committee is part of this organization.
OFF-HIRE CLAUSE: In a time charter, the owner is entitled to a limited time for his vessel to be off hire until such time as the vessel may be repaired or dry-docked.
OFFICER: Any of the licensed members of the ship's complement.
OFF-LOAD: Discharge of cargo from a ship.
OFFSHORE SERVICE VESSELS: Special vessels employed in exploration for, development of or continuous production of, subsea oil and gas.
OILER: An unlicensed member of the engine room staff who oils and greases bearings and moving parts of the main engine and auxiliaries. Most of this work is now done automatically and the oiler merely insures it operates correctly.
OIL RECORD BOOK: A book or log kept by the master of an oil tanker wherein every discharge or escape of oil is recorded.
OIL TANKER: A ship designed for the carriage of oil in bulk, her cargo space consisting of several or many tanks. Tankers load their cargo by gravity from the shore or by shore pumps and discharge using their own pumps.
OPEN RATES: Pricing systems that are flexible and not subject to conference approval. Usually applied to products in which tramps are substituted for liners.
OPEN REGISTRY : A term used in place of "flag of convenience" or "flag of necessity" to denote registry in a country which offers favorable tax, regulatory, and other incentives to ship owners from other nations.
ORE CARRIER: A large ship designed to be used for the carnage of ore. Because of the high density of ore, ore carriers have a relatively high center of gravity to prevent them being still when at sea, that is, rolling heavily with possible stress to the hull.
ORE-BULK-OIL CARRIER : A large multi-purpose ship designed to carry cargoes wither of ore or other bulk commodities or oil so as to reduce the time the ship would be in ballast if restricted to one type of commodity. This type of ship is sometimes called bulk-oil carrier.
ORE-OIL CARRIER: A ship designed to carry either ore or oil in bulk.
ORDINARY SEAMAN (OS): A deck crew member who is subordinate to the Able Bodied Seamen.
OVERTONNAGING: A situation where there are too many ships generally or in a particular trade for the level of available cargoes.
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PALLET: A flat tray, generally made of wood but occasionally of steel, on which goods particularly those in boxes, cartons or bags, can be stacked. Its purpose is to facilitate the movement of such goods, mainly by the use of forklift trucks. Note that were goods are presented for shipment packed onto a pallet, then the number of packages = 1, not the number of packages on the pallet.
PANAMAX: A vessel designed to be just small enough to transit the Panama Canal.
PASSENGER SHIP: A passenger ship that it’s authorized to carry over twelve passengers.
PER CONTAINER RATE: Rates and/or changes on shipments transported in containers or trailers and rated on the basis of the category of the container or trailer.
PERSONAL FLOATATION DEVICE: Approved floats meant as life preservers and carried on board ships.
PI: Professional Indemnity Insurance.
P & I: Protection and Indemnity Insurance.
PILOT: A person who is qualified to assist the master of a ship to navigate when entering or leaving a port.
PILOTAGE: The act carried out by a pilot of assisting the master of a ship in navigation when entering or leaving a port. Sometimes used to define the fee payable for the services of a pilot.
PILOTAGE DUES: A fee payable by the owner or operator of a ship for the services of a pilot. This fee is normally based on the ship's tonnage.
PILOT HOUSE: The enclosed space on the navigating bridge from which a ship is controlled when under way.
P.L. 480: Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 (USA).
PL 664: USA Mandate that 50 percent of US government impelled cargoes is carried under U.S. flag. Known as the 50/50 shipping law.
PLATFORM: A container consisting of a rectangular base only. See also BOLSTER, FLAT, and FLAT-TAINER.
PMA: Pacific Maritime Association (USA).
POOLING: The sharing of cargo or the profit or loss from freight by member lines of a liner conference. Pooling arrangements do not exist in all conferences.
PORT: The left-hand side of a ship when facing the front or forward end. The left side of a ship during darkness is indicated by a red light.
PORT CIP: Contracts with berth CIP. NOR can be given when within commercial limits of the port.
PR-17: USA public Resolution which requires that U.S. Government financed cargoes (Eximbank) must be shipped 100% in U.S. Flag ships, but that the requirement may be waived up to 50% in some cases.
PREAMBLE : Introduction to a Charter Party PRODUCT CARRIER: A tanker which is generally below 70,000 deadweight tons and used to carry refined oil products from the refinery to the consumer. In many cases, four different grades of oil can be handled simultaneously.
PRODUCTION UNIT Equipped to extract petroleum, e.g. oil production ship.
PROFORMA ACC : Estimated account.
PROPANE CARRIER: A ship designed to carry propane in liquid form.
The propane is carried in tanks within the holds; it remains in liquid form by means of pressure and refrigeration. Such ships are also suitable for the carriage of butane.
PSV: Platform Supply Vessel. Carries supplies to drilling units or installations during field development or production.
PUMPMAN: A rating who tends to the pumps of an oil tanker.
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QUALIFIED MEMBER OF THE ENGINE DEPARTMENT (QMED): Unlicensed members of the engine department who attend to a fully automated engine room.
OUARTERMASTER/HELMSMAN: An able-bodied seamen entrusted with the steering of a vessel.
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RADIO OPERATOR: An officer who operates and controls the shipboard communication equipment.
RECAP : Recapitulation of the terms and conditions agreed.
REEFER: Refrigerator ship; a vessel designed to carry goods requiring refrigeration, such as meat and fruit. A reefer ship has insulated holds into which cold air is passed at the temperature appropriate to the goods being carried.
REEFER BOX: An insulated shipping container designed to carry cargoes requiring temperature control. It is fitted with a refrigeration unit which is connected to the carrying ship's electrical power supply.
RETURN CARGO: A cargo which enables a ship to return loaded to the port or area where her previous cargo was loaded.
REVERSIBLE-TIME: Option for charterers to add together time allowed for loading & discharging relative to terms of a particular charter party.
ROLLING CARGO: Cargo which is on wheels, such as truck or trailers, and which can be driven or towed on to a ship.
RO/RO SHIP : Freight ship or ferry with facilities for vehicles to drive on and off (roll-on roll-off); a system of loading and discharging a ship whereby the cargo is driven on and off on ramps. Equipped with large openings at bow and stern and sometimes also in the side, the ship permits rapid loading and discharge with hydraulically operated ramps providing easy access. Fully loaded trucks or trailers carrying containers are accommodated on the deck.
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SAECCI: South Australian Employers Chamber of Commence and Industry. Peak employers body in South Australia representing in excess of 3,500 businesses.
SALVAGE: The property which has been recovered from a wrecked vessel, or the recovery of the vessel herself.
SB : Safe berth.
SBC: Small Business Coalition of Australia.
SEABEE: Sea-barge, a barge carrier design similar to "LASH" but which uses rollers to move the barges aboard the ship; the self-propelled loaded barges are themselves loaded on board as cargo and are considerably larger than those loaded on LASH ships.
SEA TRIALS : A series of trials conducted by the builders during which the owner's representatives on board act in a consulting and checking capacity to determine if the vessel has met the specifications.
SEA WORTHINESS: The sufficiency of a vessel in materials construction, equipment, crew and outfit for the trade in which it is employed. Any sort of disrepair to the vessel by which the cargo may suffer overloading, untrained officers, etc., may constitute a vessel unseaworthy.
SEAWORTHINESS: Statement on the condition of the vessel. It has valid certificates, is fully equipped and manned.
SEAWORTHINESS CERTIFICATE: A certificate issued by a classification society surveyor to allow a vessel to proceed after she has met with a mishap that may have affected its seaworthiness. It is frequently issued to enable a vessel to proceed, after temporary repairs have been affected, to another port where permanent repairs are then carried out.
SELF-SUSTAINING SHIP: A containership which has her own crane for loading and discharging shipping containers enabling the ship to serve ports which do not have suitable lifting equipment.
SELF-TRIMMING SHIP: A ship whose holds re shaped in such a way that the cargo levels itself.
SELF-UNLOADER: A bulk carrier which is equipped with gear for unloading cargo.
SEMISUBMERSIBLE: Deck supported by pillars, fastened to pontoons. The pontoons are half submerged during operations. Kept in position by anchors (or by dynamic positioning). Normally equipped with its own propulsion machinery.
SHEX: Sundays, holidays excluded (USA)).
SHIFTING: This refers to movements or changing positions of cargo from one place to another. This can easily endanger the seaworthiness or cargoworthiness of the ship.
SHINC : Sundays, holidays, included SHIP'S ARTICLES: A written agreement between the master of a ship and the crew concerning their employment. It includes rates of pay and capacity of each crewman, the date of commencement of the voyage and its duration.
SHIP'S STABILITY: The seaworthiness of a ship regarding the centrifugal force which enables her to remain upright.
SHIP'S AGENT: A person or firm who transacts all business in a port on behalf of ship-owners or charterers. Also called shipping agent; agent.
SHIPPERS: Individuals or businesses who purchase transportation services or commodities.
SHIPPER'S COUNCIL: An organization of shippers formed to collectively and services with the conferences of ship operators.
SHORT TON: 2,000 pounds (USA).
SIDE-LIFTER: A skeletal road trailer, normally drawn by a prime-mover, which is fitted with lifting equipment (cranes) to lift an ISO shipping container on/off itself. T may be of either 20' or 40' configuration of be adjustable for either.
SISTER SHIPS: Ships built on the same design.
SIU: Seafarers International Union.
SKELETAL TRAILER: A road trailer, normally drawn by a prime-mover, which has no floor but only struts fitted with locks to hold ISO shipping containers in either 20' and/or 40' configurations.
SLOP TANK: A tank in a tanker into which slops are pumped. These represent a residue of the ship's cargo of oil together with the water used to clean the cargo tanks. They are left to separate out in the slop tank.
SME: Small to medium size enterprises. Used to describe businesses with up to about 100 employees.
SOFT CURRENCY: Currency which is not fully convertible to all currencies but only to some other soft currencies.
SOLAS : Safety of Life a Sea Convention SP : Safe port SPOT (VOYAGE): A charter for a particular vessel to move a single cargo between specified loading port(s) and discharge port(s) in the immediate future. Contract rate ("spot" rate) covers total operating expenses, i.e., bunkers, port charges, canal tolls, crew's wages and food, insurance and repairs. Cargo owner absorbs, in addition, any expenses specifically levied against the cargo.
S.S.: Steamship.
ST, S/T : Short ton STACKING AND HANDLING: A charge, usually made by a stevedoring authority, for handling cargo being unloaded from a ship (Australia).
Stand-by vessel: Stationed near an offshore installation, responsible for evacuating its crew in emergencies. Also performs continuous guard function, warning other vessels to keep their distance from installations, etc.
STARBOARD: The right-hand side of a ship when facing the front or forward end. The starboard side of a ship during darkness is indicated by a green light.
STATION BILL: A list which shows the vessel's complement and details their various duties in connection with fire and boat drills.
STEC : Subject to enough cargo.
STEM: The upright post or bar of the bow of a vessel.
STERN: The rear of the vessel.
STERN THRUSTERS : A propeller at the lower sea-covered part of the bow of the ship which turns at right angles to the fore-and-aft line and thus provides transverse thrust as a maneuvering aid. See also BOW THRUSTER.
STERNWAY The: reverse movement of a vessel.
STORE: A general term for provisions, materials and supplies used aboard ship for the maintenance of the crew, and for the navigation, propulsion and upkeep of the vessel and its equipment.
STOWAGE: The placing of goods in a ship in such a way as to ensure the safety and stability of the ship not only on a sea or ocean passage but also in between ports when parts of the cargo have been loaded or discharged.
STOWAGE FACTOR : Cubic space (measurement tons occupied by one tonne (2240 lbs or 1000 kegs of cargo)) STRANDING: The running of a ship on shore on a beach.
SUBJECT TOThe running of a ship on shore on a beach.
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TAIL SHAFT: The extreme section at the aft end of a ship's propeller shaft.
TANK-BARGE: A river barge designed for the carriage of liquid bulk cargoes.
TANK CLEANING: Removal of all traces of a cargo from the tanks of a tanker normally by means of high pressure water jets.
TANKER: A tanker is a bulk carrier designed to transport liquid cargo, most often petroleum products. Oil tankers vary in size from small coastal vessels of 1,500 tons deadweight, through medium-sized ship of 60,000 tons, to the giant VLCCs (very large crude carriers).
Tariff Act of 1930 (PL 361): USA - imposes a 50-percent tariff on maintenance and repair work done on U.S.-flag vessels in foreign shipyards. Also, U.S.-flag vessels must either be built in the United States or have been a U.S.-flag vessel for at least 3 years to be eligible to carry preference cargo.
TBN : To be named/to be nominated
T/C : Time charter
T/C EQUIVALENT : Revenue per day
TERRITORIAL WATERS: That portion of the sea up to a limited instance which is immediately adjacent to the shores of any country and over which the sovereignty and exclusive jurisdiction of that country extend.
TEU: Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit - shipping containers. 1 x 20' container = 1 TEU, 1 x 40' container = 2 TEU, 2 x 40' containers = 4 TEU, etc. See also FEU.
TI: USA - Transportation Institute, a non-profit organization devoted to maritime research and education.
TIME BAR : Time after which legal claims will not be entertained
TIME CHARTER: A form of charter party wherein owner lets or leases his vessel and crew to the charterer for a stipulated period of time. The charterer pays for the bunkers and port charges in addition to the charter hire.
TIME-UP CARGO: Australia: Cargo which has been discharge from a ship but not claimed by the consignee within 30 days must be removed to a General Bonded Warehouse.
TITLE XI: A ship financing guarantee program.
TON MILE: A measurement used in the economics of transportation to designate one ton being moved one mile. This is useful to the shipper because it includes the distance to move a commodity in the calculation.
TONNAGE (Vessel)
•?DEADWEIGHT TONNAGE - Actual weight in tons (2240 lbs.) of cargo, stores, fuel, passengers and crew that can be carried by a vessel when fully loaded to summer load line mark. See "Loadline."
•DISPLACEMENT TONNAGE - Weight of water in tons (2240 lbs.) that a vessel displaces either empty or loaded.
•GROSS TONNAGE - The total capacity in cubic feet of all the spaces within the hull and the enclosed spaces above the deck available for cargo, stores, fuel, passengers and crew. One gross ton equals 100 cubic feet of capacity.
•NET TONNAGE - Cargo carrying capacity of a vessel; i.e. gross tonnage of a vessel less spaces used for stores, fuel, passengers, crew, navigation and propulsion machinery. One net ton equals 100 cubic feet of cargo capacity.

TONNE : Metric: 1 tonne = 1,000Kg,
TOP-OFF: To fill a ship which is already partly loaded with cargo?
TOW: When one or more vessels are being towed; when a tug is towing one or more floating objects; to pull an object in the water by means of a rope.
TOWAGE: Charges for the services of tugs assisting a ship or other vessels in ports or other locations; the act of towing a ship or other objects from one place to another.
TOTAL LOSS ( T L ) : 1. ACTUAL TOTAL LOSS - Total loss of a vessel or cargo when the property is completely lost or destroyed due to one of the following:
• PHYSICAL DESTRUCTION - e.g. plywood being totally consumed by fire.
• IRRETRIEVABLE DEPRIVEMENT - the owner of the property is deprived of the use of the property even though it is still intact and undamaged; e.g. a shipment of silver ingots is lost overboard; even though they still exist and are undamaged at the bottom of the ocean, they are irretrievably lost. • LOSS OF SPECIE - changes in the character of the property so that it ceases to be the thing shipped; e.g. bags of cement wetted by sea water and hardened into concrete.
• VESSEL LOST - a vessel (and its cargo) is posted "missing" at Lloyd’s and is considered an actual total loss, even though there is no evidence of it sinking.

2. CONSTRUCTIVE TOTAL LOSS (C T L ) - A vessel or cargo is so damaged that anactual total loss is inevitable, or the part or remnant remaining can only be recovered and repaired at a cost exceeding the insured value of the property.

TRADING LIMITS: Maritime area usually specified by range of ports in which a vessel may operate.
TRAMP SERVICE: Vessels operating without a fixed itinerary or schedule or charter contract.
TRIM: The relationship between a ship's draughts forward and aft.
TSUNAMI : A tidal wave caused by an earthquake under the sea.
TUG: A small vessel designed to tow or push large ships or barges. Tugs have powerful diesel engines and are essential to docks and ports to maneuver large ships into their berths. Pusher tugs are also used to push enormous trains of barges, e.g.: on the rivers and inland waterways of the USA. Oceangoing salvage tugs provide assistance to ships in distress and engage in such work as towing drilling rigs and oil production platforms.
TWU: Transport Workers Union (Australia).
TYNE HOLES: Recesses in the sides of containers or other goods for the entry of the forks of fork lift trucks. See also FORK POCKETS.
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ULCC: Ultra Large Crude Carriers. Tankers larger than 300,000 dwt.
ULLAGE: Deficiency of a liquid (the space not filled) contained in a drum or cask.
UNCTAD : United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNIT LOAD: Where a number of individual packages and pieces are unitized together, (e.g.: onto one pallet, into one container) for efficiency in transport and handling. Se also UNITIZED CARGO.
UNIT LOAD SHIPS: Ships with wide or double hatchways to holds to allow vertical access to all cargo spaces and reducing man-handling to a minimum.
UNLOAD: Removing cargo and/or containers from the ship. Also may refer to unpacking containers.
UNMANNED MACHINERY SPACES: A space where alarm bells are installed on the bridge of a ship to trace or rectify any machinery faults. The computerized devices will report any fault immediately it appears and the engineers on board can attend to the necessary ramifications.
UNPACKING: Removal of cargo, dunnage, etc., from container.
UNSEAWORTHINESS: The state or condition of a vessel when it is not in a proper state of maintenance, or if the loading equipment or crew, or in any other respect is not ready to encounter the ordinary perils of sea.
UNSTUFFING : Unpacking
U.S. EFFECTIVE CONTROLLED FLEET: That fleet of merchant ships owned by United States citizens or corporations and registered under flags of "convenience" or "necessity" such as Liberia or Panama. The term is used to emphasize that, while the fleet is not U.,$.-flag, it is effectively under U.S. control by virtue of the ship's owners and can be called to serve U.S. interests in time of emergency.
U.S.-flag vessels : Vessels which are registered in the United States and are subject to additional U.S. laws and regulations to which foreign-flag vessels are not. They must be owned by U.S. citizens, corporations, or governments and must be crewed mainly by U.S. Citizens
UNIVERSAL TIME ( U T C ) (Universal Time Coordinated) Divides the world into 24 time zones, the same as Greenwich time, but the hours are expressed using the 24 hour clock, i.e. military time (1400 = 2 p.m.). See "Time Zone
UTLC: United Trades and Labour Council. The peak body of trade unions in Australia.

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VAN POOL: Facility used for storage of containers and/or chassis. May be attached to another facility or separate.
VANNING : Packing
VENTILATED CONTAINER: A closed container which has, in the side or end wall, in addition to loading and unloading openings, a non-forced system of ventilation.
VLCC: Very Large Crude Carriers: Tankers between 200,000 and 300,000 dwt.
VOYAGE CHARTER: A contract whereby the shipowner places the vessel at the disposal of the charterer for one or more voyages, the shipowner being responsible for the operation of the vessel.
VOYAGE NUMBER, VOY. : Sequential, unique, identification number given to successive voyages of an individual vessel in a service regardless of sequence with other vessels.

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WASTE CUBE: Where the cargo does not completely fill or fit the capacity or where the weight load limit of the container is reached in advance or the volumetric limit leaving empty space in the container. See also BREAKAGE.
WATCH: The day at sea is divided into six four hour periods. Three groups of watchstanders are on duty for four hours and then off for eight, then back to duty. Seamen often work overtime during their off time.
WATER-TIGHT TEST: Specified test to determine if a container is watertight
WAYPORT: For a container, any port on the service route other than the destination of the container.
WCNA: West Coast North America.
WEAR & TEAR : The ordinary wearing away of the various parts of a vessel, machinery, and equipment through use. Such damage is not accidental in nature, but is inevitable.
WEATHER PERMITTING: That time during which weather that prevents working shall not count as laytime.
WEIGHT GOODS: Goods which yield a greater amount of freight payable when charged by weight then by measurement at the appropriate rate.
WEIGHT TONNE (TON) : 1 tonne = 1000 kg; 1 ton - 2240 lbs; 1 short ton = 2000 lbs (USA)
WHARF: A facility where a ship can moor and discharge/load directly onto dry land. It will usually incorporate suitable sheds, equipment, etc. See also CONTAINER TERMINAL.
WHARFAGE: A charge, usually made by a port authority, for cargo being unloaded from a ship. See also APCA, BSRA.
WIBON: Whether in berth or not.
WITHOUT PREJUDICE : 1. A notation in a report to indicate that the opinion is objective and unbiased to any interested party involved.
2 . A claim paid "without prejudice" to the policy terms and conditions. Payment is made without admission of liability, where doubt exists that the claim is recoverable, and payment does

WORLDSCALE: An index representing the cost of time chartering a tanker for a specific voyage at a given time. The index is given at Worldscale 100, which represents the price in dollars per ton for carrying the oil at that rate. The negotiated rate will be some percentage of the index value.
W1OO on the voyage Raps Tannra - Rotterdam (Cape-Cape) = $31.16/ton of oil
W25 = 25% of W1OO
W25 = $7.79/ton of oil
N.B. rates may be above as well as below W1OO

WOOL DUMP : Designated facility were wool is 'dumped' or compressed from original bale size to high, medium, normal, conventional or jumbo sizes to facilitate packing into containers.
WRECK : A vessel so battered, broken or destroyed by a storm, fire, grounding or other disaster that it is without further use as a vessel; a shipwreck. See "Total Loss."
WW: Weather working
W/WO: With or without.

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YARD : A place of construction, repair, and/or storage of vessels; e.g. a dockyard, boatyard, shipyard, or repairyard.
YORK-ANTWERP RULES 1974 (Y.A. Rules) : An international code for adjusting General Average claims on a uniform basis.
Y2K: Year 2000. Many systems, especially computers and equipment with embedded computer chips, are likely to fail on 01/01/2000. This is because such equipment stores years by the last 2 numbers (e.g.: 1999 = 99, 2000 = 00) and many computers, etc., are programmed to understand the year 00 to be 1900, etc. See also MILLENNIUM BUG.

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